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In 1961, the Beatles had improved greatly. They visited Hamburg again in April of 1961. George was eighteen years old. Peter Eckhorn, the owner of The Top Ten and Astrid helped them get their work permits.

The Top Ten was bigger and not as rough as the other clubs they had played in. Astrid met them at the train station when they arrived. This time they started taking pep pills to make them stay awake as they played, everyone except Pete Best.

John was still shoplifting, when he wanted to. He also drew and participated in childish pranks. During this trip, the Beatles made their first record, except they were called The Beat Boys. Stuart wasn't there though because he wanted to marry Astrid, and be an art student. He felt he was better at art than at playing the bass guitar. Paul took over on the bass.


In July of 1961, the four Beatles returned to Liverpool, leaving Stuart in Hamburg. The two main bands at the time were Gerry and the Peacemakers and Rory Storme and the Hurricanes, where Ringo Starr was on the drums. The Beatles became the main group at the Cavern, but they continued to play at Pete's mother's club, the Casbah Club. Neil Aspinall, Pete's friend, became their road manager, since he bought a van.

Danny English, the manager of the Old Dive, a pub near the Cavern, tried to get his customers to help the Beatles. They started to develop a lack of progress. In September of 1961, John got some money from an aunt and deciided to go to Paris with Paul. George and Pete were mad because they were booked to play.

In Paris, they met Jurgen Vollmer, a friend they had met in Hamburg. John knew that he would be there because Stuart told him in a letter.


One day in 1961, Stuart collasped at Art School, and he went home. In February in 1962, he collapsed again. He developed headaches and temper tantrums which made it hard for Astrid to look after him. He had some medical treatment, but it didn't help much.

Stu died in April of 1962 after a brain hemmorrhage. He had had a great influence on the Beatles.